Sweet success – why is sugar so bad for us and how to cut down
First things first – the key to understanding our tendencies towards sweet and sugary treats is by first gaining a basic understanding of human evolution. It might sound ridiculous to some but, according to evolutionary biologists, we inherited our sugar cravings from our ancestors.
Sugar – where would we be without it?
Sugar-rich fruit would have been a key component of the diet of our earliest ancestors, at least during the warmer months, and we are said to have evolved to retain a preference for ripe fruit as this contained higher levels of sugar which therefore provided more energy. There are also evolutionary reasons behind the body’s tendency to store sugar as fat too – when we consume sugar, the body breaks this down in to glucose and fructose, and the latter is said to activate the fat-storing process. The ability to store up energy in the form of body fat increased the chances of survival during times when food was scarce, and is therefore said to have been a crucial factor in the process of human evolution.
Love chocolate? It really can be an addiction!
But there’s another reason why many of us battle with sugar cravings on a daily basis and this can be boiled down to simple chemistry – sugar is known to trigger the release of the feel-good brain chemical dopamine. After consuming sugar, be it in the form of chocolate, cake or a sugary cup of coffee – the neurotransmitter dopamine is released into the mesolimbic pathway within the brain – also known as the reward pathway. This pathway is said to be the most significant neural pathway, responsible for our very survival as a species. Deemed a ‘natural’ reward, other basic activities such as eating, having sex and caring for our family members also trigger this reward response – which in turn ensures that these behaviours - essential to survival - are repeated ad infinitum.
The reward pathway is also said to be the area of the brain in which changes occur in relation to the cycle of addiction – in all its forms, whether it be sugar, tobacco, caffeine, alcohol or drugs and therein lies the catch – food, and in particular - sugar-laden and carb-heavy foods, such as doughnuts – really CAN be addictive, as increasing evidence has shown. It tastes good, we feel good when we’re eating it, and we get an energy kick from it so naturally, we want to do it over and over again. But as our propensity toward sugar increases, so do our waistlines and risk factors for numerous obesity-related health problems.
But why now?
We’re all familiar with the statistics – UK obesity rates have been increasing while simultaneously more of us seem to be aware of and attuned to the dangers of too much sugar on the diet than we ever have been. So where are we going wrong? What about our national diet has changed so drastically compared to, say, 25 years ago?
There are numerous theories as to why we are seeing rising rates of obesity, but many experts agree that it is likely to be a combination of factors combined which are resulting in obesity, as opposed to one or two main causes.
Some of the contributory factors include a decline in manual professions coupled with an increase in office-based employment, an upward trend of equally sedentary leisure activities, such as gaming and tablet/smartphone usage, as well as changes to the national diet. Many of us are always ‘busy’, working or driving here there and everywhere on a perpetual hamster wheel of mentally draining activities, but how much of this activity is truly working our physical bodies, muscles and tissues in the way - through tens of thousands of years of evolution - our bodies have become accustomed to operate?
Hidden sugars – do we really need them?
While almost all of us are aware of the risks associated with added sugar – such as that added to tea and coffee or sprinkled over cereal or fruit, how much do we really know about hidden or free sugars that are lurking in those fruit flavoured squashes, in low-fat but high in sugar yoghurts or even in some deceptively savoury pastries and rolls from the bakery?
What are free sugars?
Free sugars are any form of sugar – with the exception of milk sugar or lactose – that has been added to foods or drinks including those naturally found in foods including fruit and honey. The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommends that such sugars should account for a maximum of 5% of our daily energy intake – or 30g per day for adults. Children aged between 4 and 6 should consume 19g per day or less and children aged between 7 and 11 should have a maximum of 24g, but experts point out that these targets can prove difficult to achieve given that free sugars are not currently listed on food labels.
How can I find out if a food is high in sugar?
A good rule to remember is, if sugar is among the first few ingredients listed, the overall product will contain very high levels of sugar. Other ingredients to look out for besides the obvious ‘sugar’ include sucrose, glucose, fructose, dextrose, invert sugar and molasses.
The traffic light food labelling system can also be a useful way to identify high-sugar foods and drinks, with a red traffic light to signify high sugar. Some food manufacturers are now reformulating some of their products and promoting them as reduced sugar – so try to make the switch from your usual products to the reduced sugar version wherever possible.
Sugar and obesity
One of the primary consequences of a high-sugar diet is obesity – a problem which continues to expand across much of the developed world, with a huge 59% of the EU population now classed as clinically obese. In the UK, 25% of adults are said to be obese – with a BMI of 30 or above. Dealing with the consequences of obesity, including high blood pressure, cardiovascular problems and cancer costs the NHS £5.1 billion a year and type 2 diabetes, a large proportion of which is said to be a consequence of obesity, costs the NHS £8.8billion per year – 10% of the entire NHS budget.
But perhaps of most concern of all, our children are suffering and are being set up for a lifetime of ill health. According to the most recent data, British children of primary school age are the most obese in Europe, with a third classed as overweight or obese, and one in five five-year-olds are also overweight – figures predicted to rise further to half of all school-age children by 2020.
If your child is very overweight, visit NHS Choices to find out what you can do to help them lose weight in a healthy way.
Sugar and tooth decay in children
According to the British Dental Association (BDA), tooth decay is the number one cause for hospital admissions for tooth extractions in young children, citing recent data that reveals a 10% increase admissions over the past four years.
Is sugar intake really to blame?
According to the NHS, children in the UK are consuming three times the sugar that they should be, which tragically means their risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems and even some cancers, is increased. The NHS says that around 30% of this extra sugar is consumed in the form of fizzy drinks, squashes, energy drinks and fruit juices and the government says it plans to introduce a ‘sugar tax’ in an effort to combat this alarming epidemic of obesity.
The BDA have an informative video on the sugar content of soft drinks.
How much sugar should we be consuming?
As mentioned above, the SACN issued new guidance last year that recommends no more than 5% of our daily energy be from sugar. This is equivalent to the following amounts per day:
- 19g of sugar for children aged 4 to 6
- 24g of sugar for children aged 7 to 11
- 30g of sugar for everyone aged 11 and over, including adults.
For the NHS guidelines on sugar, visit NHS Choices.
How can I cut down on sugar?
The NHS has also produced a range of resources to help people reduce their sugar intake via the Sugar Smart pages on the Change4Life website. You can discover why too much sugar is detrimental to health as well as tips on cutting back, recipes and the free to download Sugar Smart app.
You can also visit our Three Quick Tips to reduce your sugar intake page for some more recipes and ideas.
You may find the first few days without your usual sugar hit difficult but persevere and you should find your energy levels stabilise as you grow accustomed to coping without the peaks and troughs of sugar cravings and the inevitable post-sugar energy crash. And your overall health will improve, while you will be actively reducing your risk of developing serious health problems. So, what are you waiting for?
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