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Understanding Menopause: Stages, Symptoms and Coping Techniques

Understanding Menopause

Menopause is a natural phase in a woman's life, but it can bring physical and emotional changes. Understanding the stages of menopause and learning how to cope with its symptoms is crucial for a healthier wellbeing.

We will explore the four different stages of menopause – Pre-menopause, Peri-menopause, Menopause, and Post-menopause – along with their common symptoms and effective coping techniques. We'll also delve into the importance of private health insurance and how our health and wellbeing services can offer support during this transformative time.

Pre-menopause: The Beginning

The period before entering perimenopause is often referred to as "pre-menopause". From about the age of 35, the body undergoes subtle changes in preparation for the transition into peri-menopause and eventually full menopause. Here's what might happen:

  • Regular Menstrual Cycles: In the years leading up to peri-menopause, it is common to experience regular menstrual cycles.
  • Consistent Hormone Levels: While hormone levels begin to fluctuate with age, during the pre-menopausal stage, they generally remain relatively stable.
  • Fertility: Women in pre-menopause can still conceive, although fertility starts to decline. It's essential to continue using contraception if you do not wish to become pregnant.
  • No Noticeable Menopausal Symptoms: Typically, women in the premenopausal stage do not experience the classic symptoms associated with peri-menopause and menopause, such as hot flashes, night sweats, and significant changes in menstrual patterns.

It's important to note that the exact timing and experiences of pre-menopause can vary widely from person to person. While some may enter Peri-menopause in their late 30s or early 40s, others may not experience significant changes until their late 40s or even early 50s. These variations are influenced by genetics, lifestyle choices, and individual differences in hormonal regulation.


Next is Peri-menopause which is a transitional phase that can last for several years before menopause officially begins. During this time, the body undergoes significant changes as it prepares for the end of the reproductive years. These are the signs to look out for:

  • Irregular Periods: One of the biggest signs is irregular menstrual cycles. Women may experience variations in the length of their menstrual cycles, as well as changes in the flow of their periods. Additionally, missed periods or episodes of heavy bleeding can occur.
  • Menopausal Symptoms: Peri-menopause can be marked by the onset of menopausal symptoms, although their intensity can vary widely. Common symptoms include hot flashes, night sweats, mood swings, irritability, vaginal dryness, and changes in libido. These symptoms are largely attributed to hormonal changes.
  • Fertility Decline: While pregnancy is still possible during peri-menopause, fertility declines. There may be experiences with changes in menstrual cycle patterns that make it more challenging to conceive.
  • Bone Health Considerations: With the decrease in Oestrogen levels, there is an increased risk of bone loss during per-imenopause. This can contribute to conditions like osteoporosis. It's to focus on maintaining good bone health through diet, exercise, and, in some cases, supplements.
  • Emotional Changes: Hormonal shifts can also affect mood and emotional well-being. Some may experience mood swings, anxiety, or depression.
  • Physical Changes: Changes in skin elasticity, hair texture, metabolism and weight gain can occur during this stage.

The duration of perimenopause can vary for each person, with some experiencing this phase for a few years, while others may go through it for a decade or more. The official onset of menopause is marked by the absence of menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months.

Menopause: Embracing the Change

Menopause officially begins when 12 consecutive months without a menstrual period have passed. Menopause typically occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, with the average age being around 51. Oestrogen levels decline, which can lead to various physical and emotional symptoms. These hormonal fluctuations can affect various aspects of a woman's health. Common symptoms include:

  • Lack of Period: 12 consecutive months without a menstrual period.
  • Hot flashes: Sudden, intense feelings of heat, often accompanied by sweating and flushing.
  • Night sweats: Hot flashes that occur during the night, often disrupting sleep.
  • Mood swings: Changes in mood, including irritability, anxiety, and depression.
  • Vaginal dryness: A decrease in vaginal lubrication, which can lead to discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse.
  • Sleep disturbances: Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
  • Changes in libido: Decreased interest in sexual activity.
  • Cognitive changes: Some women may experience memory lapses or difficulty concentrating.
  • Weight gain: Changes in metabolism can lead to weight gain, particularly around the abdomen.
  • Bone Health: Risk of bone loss, which can lead to osteoporosis.
  • Cardiovascular Health: Menopause can also impact cardiovascular health.

Menopause is a natural and inevitable phase in a woman's life. While it can bring challenges, it also signifies a new chapter and opportunities for women to focus on their well-being, pursue their interests, and embrace the wisdom that comes with age. Regular communication with healthcare providers is essential for managing symptoms and maintaining good health during and after menopause.


Post-menopause represents the latter part of a woman's life when she no longer experiences the hormonal fluctuations and reproductive changes associated with her fertile years. However, some health considerations, such as mind and body health continue to be important but here’s what to expect:

  • Hormonal Stability: Oestrogen and progesterone levels remain consistently low, and the hormonal fluctuations have ceased.
  • Absence of Menstrual Periods: Post-menopausal women no longer have menstrual periods.
  • Resolution of Menopausal Symptoms: Many menopausal symptoms that women experienced during perimenopause and early menopause tend to improve or resolve in post-menopause.

However, some women may continue to experience symptoms, particularly if they had severe menopausal symptoms earlier:

  • Vaginal Changes: Vaginal dryness and thinning of the vaginal walls, which can lead to discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse, may persist in post-menopause.
  • Bone Health Considerations: Post-menopausal women are at an increased risk of osteoporosis due to the prolonged period of low oestrogen levels.
  • Cardiovascular Health: Post-menopausal women should continue to focus on cardiovascular health. Heart disease risk may increase after menopause due to changes in hormone levels.
  • Long-Term Health and Wellness: Post-menopause represents a phase of life when women should prioritize their overall health and well-being. Regular health check-ups, cancer screenings, and preventive healthcare measures are essential for maintaining good health in the later years.

It's important to note that the post-menopausal period can last for the rest of a women’s life. While many women find relief from certain menopausal symptoms during this stage, they should continue to monitor their health and seek medical advice as needed.

Coping with these Stages:

Coping with the various stages of menopause, from pre-menopause to post-menopause, is a journey that every woman experience in her own unique way. These stages mark significant transitions in a woman's life, accompanied by physical, emotional, and hormonal changes. While this natural process is a part of the aging journey, it can bring challenges that require understanding and adaptation.

Take a look at out techniques that might help you through these stages:

  1. Lifestyle Adjustments: Maintain a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress management techniques to support your overall well-being.
  2. Bone Health: Focus on maintaining bone health through calcium-rich diets, regular exercise, and potentially bone-strengthening medications.
  3. Supportive Network: Share your experiences with friends and family, or consider joining a menopause support group to connect with others going through similar changes.
  4. Cardiovascular Health: Continue a heart-healthy lifestyle with regular check-ups and consultations with a healthcare provider
  5. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Consider HRT under medical guidance to manage severe symptoms.
  6. Alternative Therapies: Explore alternative therapies such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, or yoga to alleviate symptoms.
  7. Medication: Your healthcare provider may prescribe medication to address specific symptoms.
  8. Get Private Health Insurance: Our health insurance can give you access to specialists and Health and Wellbeing services, ensuring you receive the best care during this phase.
  9. Consult a Healthcare Provider: Discuss any unusual symptoms with a healthcare provider to rule out underlying issues.
  10. Embrace Your New Self: Embrace the freedom and wisdom that come with post-menopause. Focus on pursuing your passions and staying active to maintain physical and mental well-being.

In conclusion, understanding the different stages, their common symptoms, and effective coping techniques can help you navigate this journey with grace and confidence. Embrace the changes that come with menopause and prioritise your health to enjoy a vibrant and fulfilling life beyond this transition.

This content is subject to our Disclaimer.

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